What did Julius Caesar Wear On His Head

Julius Caesar. Not one of the most common names nowadays. This man had a decent impact on the world, being remembered as one of the key figures in Roman history along with being one of the most powerful and influential people in human history. I do wonder, though, what did he wear on his head?

What did Julius Caesar Wear On His Head

Julius Caesar wore many different types of hats throughout his lifetime. At first, he wore hats of purple cloth, which were similar in style to what his friends and colleagues wore. Caesar eventually began wearing a laurel leaf crown, which was worn by the kings of Rome. After becoming emperor, Caesar chose to wear more ornate crowns during formal events as well as everyday wear

A leader’s headwear

The Roman general Julius Caesar wore a wreath of laurel on his head to show that he was a powerful and strong leader.

Just as the ancient Greeks and the Etruscans before them, the ancient Romans associated the laurel wreath with victory and success. They saw it as a badge of honor and was only given to a select few who had achieved something extraordinary.

In Ancient Greece, wreaths were awarded to victors in both athletic competitions, including the ancient Olympics, and for military prowess. It was made of wild olive-tree known as “kotinos” (κότινος). In Greek mythology, Apollo is represented wearing a laurel wreath on his head. The Etruscans gave their kings thin gold wreaths.

Julius Caesar

Caesar received the wreath for his many victories on the battlefield. It was awarded to him at his triumphal procession through Rome in April, 46 BCE. A Roman triumph (triumphus) famous for its extravagance, hailing the commander for his victories in four wars: the war in Gaul, the war in Egypt, the war against Pharnaces of Pontus and the war against king Juba of Numidia.

Usually, the laurel wreath was only worn on the day of the triumph, but when Caesar became dictator in 44 BCE, he wore it again.

According to the Roman author Suetonius, the wreath suited Caesar especially well with the green leaves hiding his balding head.

The laurel wreath was not the Romans only badge of honor. They used many types of wreaths produced by different plants to reward their heroes.

Still in use today

Today, the term laureato is used in Italy to refer to any student who has graduated and right after the graduation ceremony, the student receives a laurel wreath to wear for the rest of the day.

A laurel wreath is also used to symbolize academic achievements in many other countries; in Finland, at the University of Helsinki, it is given during the ceremony of conferral for the master’s degree. Seniors at Reed College in Portland, Oregon, United States, get laurel wreaths when they turn in their senior theses in May. In Sweden, those receiving a doctorate or an honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Philosophy, receive a laurel wreath during the ceremony of conferral of the degree.

Often used as a motif in architecture, furniture, textiles and in heraldry as well, it can often be seen in various coat of arms, as a charge in a shield, around the shield or on top of it.

Lastly, perhaps you have heard the expression “resting on one’s laurels”? A quite common idiom that refers to someone relying entirely on long-past successes for continued fame or recognition, where to “look to one’s laurels” means to be careful of losing rank to competition.

What does the Laurel Tree Symbolize?

It is a symbol of triumph and is worn as a chapletaround the head, or as a garland around the neck. The symbol of thelaurel wreath traces back to Greek mythology. Apollo isrepresented wearing a laurel wreath on his head, and wreathswere awarded to victors, both in athleticcompetitions.

What does a Crown of Flowers Mean?

The History of Flower Crowns. Flowers even appeared as dress embellishments in different traditional clothing. And it’s still present. Since ancient times, horseshoe or circular shape crown has been a symbol of power, eternity and glory. Ancient Rome and Greece had crowns made from wool and ivy leaves.

What does the Imperial Crown Mean?

b : the crown of an emperor or of an empire. 2 :a conventionalized representation of an imperial crownespecially : a figure of a crown in the style of theimperial crown of England often used as an emblem of thesovereignty of the British monarch or as a heraldicbearing.

What does a Wreath Represent?

The wreath has significant meaning for theseason. It’s circular shape represents eternity, for it hasno beginning and no end. From a christian religious perspective, itrepresents an unending circle of life. The evergreen, mostfrequently used in making wreathes, symbolizes growth andeverlasting life.

What is the Flower of Rome?

The flower emblems of the country have been alienated in to three categories-The traditional symbolic flower for Italy is Rose while, White Poppy or White Lily serves as religious symbolic flower and according to popularity Violet is considered a flower symbol in the country.

Did Romans wash Clothes in Urine?

Ammonia is also found in urine and the earlyEuropeans often preferred pee to soap when cleaning theirhomes. In ancient Rome, vessels were placed on streets asurine collectors. After the buckets were full from peoplepassing by to relieve themselves, the vats were taken to alaundry and used to wash dirtyclothes.

How do you Make a Leaf Crown?

Take your first leaf and fold 1/3 of the leaf behind itself. Take your next leaf and gently poke the end through the first folded leaf. Weave the end in and out a few times. Fold 1/3 of each leaf behind and continue this pattern until the crown is large enough to encircle the owner’s head.

What is the Symbol for Laurel?

Symbol of Peace

The laurel tree was once considered as a sign of honor and achievement, and it has been used to signify victory and success.

What did Rich Romans Eat?

The Romans kept animals for their meat. Therich ate beef, pork, wild boar, venison, hare, guinea fowl,pheasant, chicken, geese, peacock, duck, and even dormice (servedwith honey). The poorer Romans didn’t eat as muchmeat as the rich, but it still featured in their diet. Lotsof seafood was consumed by the Romans.

What did Romans do for Fun?

The Romans had a range of leisure pursuits, fromwatching gladiatorial fights to playing dice games. These weresometimes used to hold gladiator fights. The Romans inCaledonia probably had smaller amphitheatres in some of theirlarger forts.

What does a Wreath Tattoo mean?

Laurel wreath is a sign of achievement and perfection. Throughout history, laurel leaves have symbolized nobility, triumph, and victory; the famous crowns were tailored to crown the emperors of the Roman Empire and were given as a reward to warriors and outstanding athletes in ancient Greece.

What did the Romans Sleep on?

Ancient Rome was located by the Mediterranean Sea,focussed on the city of Rome. Well-off Ancient Romans slepton beds made out of wood that were decorated with shells, ivory,gold, silver or bronze.

How did the Romans Dye their Clothes?

Although we think that all roman clothes werewhite (because of the statues), Romans dyed theirsclothes in purple, indigo, red, yellow and other colors.Leather was used for protection against poor weather (from leatherwere made heavy coats for Roman soldiers), but its primaryuse was in footwear and belts.

Are Wreaths only for Christmas?

Wreaths Are Not Just for Christmas. A good wreath is a beacon of creativity hanging on one’s front door, offering family, friends and strangers alike a taste of what makes their host unique. Wreaths can be seasonal or timeless, and making a truly unique wreath can be inexpensive, easy and fun.

Are Togas Greek or Roman?

The toga has its roots in garments worn by theEtruscans and the Greeks. The Greeks had worn alengthy cloak called the himation, and the Etruscans, earlyinhabitants of the Italian peninsula, had adapted this into theirtebenna. But the true toga was a Romaninvention.

What does it mean to Rest on Laurels?

To ‘rest on your laurels‘ means that you get lazy or complacent about what you could achieve because you’re too busy basking in the memories of former glories.

What did Plebeians Eat?

Plebeians might have a dinner of porridge made ofvegetables, or, when they could afford it, fish, bread, olives, andwine, and meat on occasion.

What spice also called Laurel was used for head wreaths in ancient Rome?

  1. Bend and shape the coat wire hanger to form a circular shape. Try it on your head to check the size. Cut the excess wire from the coat hanger with wire cutters.
  2. Cover the circular wire in floral tape. Wrap the floral tape around the wire.
  3. Save on Crafts: How to Make a Wreath. The History of Laurel Wreath: Roman Empire.

What does Laurel mean in the Bible?

The first is a regal crown of precious metal, what we would normally think of as a crown. Similarly, in I Peter 5:4 a non-fading crown is contrasted with a fading, i.e., laurel, crown. James suggests a laurel crown for those who persevere(3)Laurel is a shrub or small tree with evergreen, leathery leaves.

What does a Wreath Represent?

The wreath has significant meaning for the season. It’s circular shape represents eternity, for it has no beginning and no end. From a christian religious perspective, it represents an unending circle of life. The evergreen, most frequently used in making wreathes, symbolizes growth and everlasting life.

Bay, or laurel, was famed in ancient Greece and Rome. Emperors, heroes and poets wore wreaths of laurel leaves.

Who started the Tradition of Laurel?

Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) understood the importance and the appeal of the ancient Greek wreath of laurel. Wise to its historic image, and the tradition of its victorious shape and visual mark of success that it represented, it was chosen as one of his gilded napoleonic emblems of his French Empire.

Does an Emperor wear a crown?

There is no single Imperial Crown, most Emperors and Empresses have had one made for their coronation. The Emperor or Empress does not typically wear this crown, as it is seen as a hindrance or quite heavy to wear on one’s head. Former Emperors or Empresses are also allowed to wear a similar crown, as is their spouse.

What did Romans Drink?

Romans would drink wine mixed with otheringredients as well. Calda was a winter drink made fromwine, water and exotic spices. Mulsum was a very popular wine andhoney mixture. The Romans did not drink beer andrarely drank milk.

What do Romans Wear Today?

In summer, Roman women tend to wear caprior linen pants, sundresses or skirts. Roman men wearlinen pants, and some might wear long bermuda shorts. Nobodyminds if the tourists wear shorts, because there are so manywho do.

How do you make a Laurel Crown?

There is no single Imperial Crown; most Emperors and Empresses have had one made for their coronations. The Emperor or Empress does not typically wear this crown, as it is seen as a hindrance or quite heavy to wear on one’s head. Former Emperors or Empresses are also allowed to wear a similar crown, as is their spouse.

What Did Jesus Wear On The Cross

The clothing of Jesus is important to the story of his death and resurrection. Christians around the world commemorate Jesus’ crucifixion annually on Good Friday, when he died on a cross between two thieves. Church tradition holds that Jesus was likely wearing a seamless garment made of linen which would have been available in only one color of course.

It is difficult to exaggerate the importance of the Cross of Christ.

…cross(i.e.,…Paul delivered the message of the cross to the Corinthians (1 Cor. 15:1-2), and he explained that it was of “first importance” (1 Cor. 15:3). His language does not refer to the order of speech (i.e., “this is the first thing I need to say…”). Instead, “first importance” refers to the primacy or importance of the cross (i.e., “this is at the top of the list…”). Earlier, Paul writes, “We preach Christ crucified, to Jews a stumbling block and to Gentiles foolishness, 24 but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God” (1 Cor. 1:23-24). While Paul believed that the message of the cross was the “power” and “wisdom” of God, he also claimed that it was “foolishness” to Gentiles.

The Greek satirist Lucian called the early Christians “misguided creatures.” Pliny the Younger called Christianity a “depraved and excessive superstition.” Tacitus called it a “most mischievous superstition.”]

 In fact, there is a graffito from the second century AD with a picture of a crucified donkey. Beneath the crude drawing read the words: “Alexamenos worships god.” This picture shows the derision with which the early Christians were treated for worshipping a crucified Messiah.

But what really happened at the Cross? The NT authors only offer the terse statement: “They crucified him” (Mk. 15:24; c.f. Mt. 27:26; Lk. 23:33; Jn. 19:16). But what did Jesus’ sacrifice truly entail?

1. Physical Torment

The Romans perfected the art of torture and execution, and their masterpiece was death by crucifixion. This form of torture was so extreme that it usually wasn’t even allowed for Roman citizens. Craig Blomberg writes, “Roman citizens were mostly exempt from this kind of torture; it was generally reserved for the worst of slaves and criminals.” The Roman statesman Cicero referred to crucifixion as “a most cruel and disgusting punishment… To bind a Roman citizen is a crime; to flog him is an abomination; to kill him is almost an act of murder; to crucify him is—what? “There is no fitting word that can possibly describe such a horrible deed.” After witnessing crucifixion firsthand, Josephus referred to it as “the most wretched of deaths.” Even our modern term “excruciate” comes from the Latin excruciates, which literally means “out of the cross.” After studying what occurred during crucifixion, it is easy to see why.

Scourging

Before he was crucified, Pilate had Jesus “scourged” (Mt. 27:27; Mk. 15:15; Lk. 23:16; Jn. 19:1). In their 1986 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Edwards, Gabel, and Hosmer explain Roman scourging in this way,

Flogging was a legal preliminary to every Roman execution, and only women and Roman senators or soldiers (except in cases of desertion) were exempt. The usual instrument was a short whip (flagellum or flagellum) with several single or braided leather thongs of variable lengths, in which small iron balls or sharp pieces of sheep bones were tied at intervals.

As the Roman soldiers repeatedly struck the victim’s back with full force, the iron balls would cause deep contusions, and the leather thongs and sheep bones would cut into the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Then, as the flogging continued, the lacerations would tear into the underlying skeletal muscles and produce quivering ribbons of bleeding flesh. Pain and blood loss generally set the stage for circulatory shock.

Thus before Jesus was even crucified, they conclude that “Jesus’ physical condition was at least serious and possibly critical. While the Jews only allowed 39 lashes during scourging, physician Truman Davis writes, “It is doubtful whether the Romans made any attempt to follow the Jewish law in this matter of scourging.”We can assume that Jesus’ scourging was gratuitous and gruesome.

Carrying the Cross

While popular films typically picture Jesus carrying his entire cross to Golgotha, it is more likely that he just carried the top, horizontal bar. Edwards, Gabel, and Hosmer write, “Since the weight of the entire cross was probably well over 300 lb (136 kg), only the crossbar was carried.” The patibulum, weighing 75 to 125 lb (34 to 57 kg), was placed across the nape of the victim’s neck and balanced along both shoulders. Usually, the outstretched arms were then tied to the crossbar.” Historians estimate the crossbar at roughly 80 lbs., which seems more feasible for a bleeding and lacerated man. Even though the crossbar was only 80 pounds, Jesus was unable to make the trek because of his injuries, which were only 600 yards away (Mt. 27:32; Mk. 15:21; Lk. 23:27).

Crucifixion

The first recorded act of crucifixion was in 519 B.C. by Darius of Persia..However, while the Romans didn’t invent crucifixion, they certainly perfected this form of torture. The Romans drove the nails through the base of the hand (or wrist) in order to maximize the level of pain. Edwards, Gabel, and Hosmer write,

The driven nail would crush or sever the rather large sensorimotor median nerve. The stimulated nerve would produce excruciating bolts of fiery pain in both arms. Although the severed median nerve would result in paralysis of a portion of the hand, ischemic contractures and impalement of various ligaments by the iron spike might produce a clawlike grasp.

Because of this strategic insertion of the nail, the individual would live for a very long time. In fact, the Romans nailed the victim in these specific locations, because it avoided rupturing any major arteries, allowing maximal pain. Edwards, Gabel, and Hosmer write,

Although scourging may have resulted in considerable blood loss, crucifixion per se was a relatively bloodless procedure, since no major arteries, other than perhaps the deep plantar arch, pass through the favored anatomic sites of transfixion.”

Length of crucifixion

Jesus survived somewhere between three to six hours on the Cross (c.f. Jn. 19:14). However, most victims lasted much longer. Edwards, Gabel, and Hosmer write, “The length of survival generally ranged from three or four hours to three or four days and appears to have been inversely related to the severity of the scourging. It could actually be seen as a sadistic blessing that Jesus was scourged so badly, because it meant a shorter time on the Cross.

Death by crucifixion

Crucifixion would eventually kill the individual in one of two ways: asphyxia or by heart failure. Edwards, Gabel, and Hosmer write,

The weight of the body, pulling down on the outstretched arms and shoulders, would tend to fix the intercostal muscles in an inhalation state and thereby hinder passive exhalation. Accordingly, exhalation was primarily diaphragmatic, and breathing was shallow. It is likely that this form of respiration would not suffice and that hypercarbia would soon result.

Adequate exhalation required lifting the body by pushing up on the feet and by flexing the elbows and adducting the shoulders. However, this maneuver would place the entire weight of the body on the tarsals and would produce searing pain. Furthermore, flexion of the elbows would cause rotation of the wrists about the iron nails and cause fiery pain along the damaged median nerves. Lifting of the body would also painfully scrape the scourged back against the rough wooden stipes. Muscle cramps and paresthesias of the outstretched and uplifted arms would add to the discomfort. As a result, each respiretory [sic] effort would become agonizing and tiring and lead eventually to asphyxia.

This is why the first-century philosopher Seneca spoke of crucifixion victims “drawing the breath of life amid long-drawn-out agony.” In order to hasten the death of the person, the Romans would perform crurifragium: breaking the legs of the individual in order to expedite asphyxia. Edwards, Gabel, and Hosmer write, “Crucifracture (breaking the legs below the knees), if performed, led to an asphyxic death within minutes.”

As we noted above, crucifixion could also end in heart failure. This was how Jesus died. John writes, “One of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out” (Jn. 19:34). Regarding the mention of “blood and water,” Edwards, Gabel, and Hosmer write,

The water probably represented serous pleural and pericardial fluid and would have preceded the flow of blood and been smaller in volume than the blood. If the person had low blood volume and was about to have acute heart failure, pleural and pericardial effusions could have happened and added to the amount of water that looked like it was there. The blood, in contrast, may have originated from the right atrium or the right ventricle, or perhaps from a hemopericardium.

2. Psychological Torment

In addition to the physical torment, Jesus experienced tremendous psychological torment as well.

Jesus was stripped completely naked

While modern crucifixes usually depict Jesus wearing a loin cloth, this is much more for our benefit as modern people. Historically, crucifixion victims were given no way of preserving their nudity; Jesus was crucified buck naked.[24] Of course, we need to remember that Hebrew culture was much more modest than today. In our culture, it is regular to see sex and nudity. In theirs, it wasn’t. Therefore, if you can imagine it, this would have been even more humiliating than it is today.

Jesus was crucified in a public place

According to Blomberg, Golgotha was “probably a busy intersection chosen to heighten the effect of the execution as a public deterrent to similar ‘crimes.’”[25] To put this in modern terms, it would be equivalent to being publicly tortured at a shopping mall or busy intersection downtown. The Romans strategically crucified criminals in public places as an incentive to others not to challenge the law of Rome.

Jesus was ridiculed and mocked

The criminals being crucified next to Jesus insulted him (Mt. 27:44). Luke writes, “Even the rulers were sneering at Him, saying, ‘He saved others; let Him save Himself if this is the Christ of God, His Chosen One’” (Lk. 23:35). Ironically, if Jesus saved himself, he wouldn’t have been able to save the people around him.

Jesus was abandoned by his closest friends

Matthew records that “all the disciples forsook him and fled” (Mt. 26:56). Judas denied Christ for 30 pieces of silver (Mt. 26:15), and Peter denied Christ three times in a row (Lk. 22:54-60). In fact, Jesus even heard his last denial in person (v.61). Many of us have experienced rejection or betrayal from our friends and family. We hardly need anyone to convince us of how painful this is. Jesus experienced this abandonment at the moment when he needed companionship the most.

Jesus was tortured in front of his mother and closest friend

Perhaps the only thing worse than torture is to be tortured in front of your loved ones! John records that Jesus was crucified—fully naked—in full view of his mother and closest friend, John (Jn. 19:25-27). Being stripped naked in front of your mother would be bad, but beaten, whipped, and tortured to death? This must have been horrific.

Jesus anticipated his death for his entire life

Jesus wasn’t surprised by the Cross. He knew beforehand that he was going to die in this way. For instance, Jesus stated, “The Son of man also came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many” (Mk. 10:45). Earlier in John, he said, “I lay down My life so that I may take it again. 18 No one has taken it away from Me, but I lay it down on My own initiative. I have authority to lay it down, and I have authority to take it up again” (Jn. 10:17-18). Many other passages demonstrate that Jesus was well aware of how he would die—far in advance (Mt. 17:12; Mk. 9:30-32; Lk. 9:44-45). Soldiers in war will often state that the worst part of battle is the waiting. Jesus had to contemplate and think about this awful event far in advance.

Jesus could have ended his torment at any moment

We have all been stuck in suffering before. But Jesus’ suffering was different: he could have ended it at any moment. Jesus said, “Do you think I cannot call on my Father, and he will at once put at my disposal more than twelve legions of angels?” (Mt. 26:53).

This psychological torment kept Jesus awake all night; he couldn’t sleep. He said, “My soul is very sorrowful, even to death” (Mt. 26:38). His torment was so intense that Luke records, “His sweat became like drops of blood” (Lk. 22:44). While this could be a figure of speech (“His sweat became like drops of blood”), this could also be a sign of hematidrosis. Physician Truman Davis writes, “Though very rare, the phenomenon of hematidrosis or bloody sweat is well documented.” Under great emotional stress, tiny capillaries in the sweat glands can break, thus mixing blood with sweat. This process alone could have produced marked weakness and a possible shock.

3. Spiritual Torment

The physical and psychological torment was no doubt inconceivable. And yet, by far the worst torment that Jesus faced was spiritual in nature. At the Cross, Jesus was separated and judged by God for the sins of the human race. Jesus cried out, “Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?” that is, “My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?” (Mt. 27:46). At the Cross, Jesus was forsaken by God for the first time in eternity, and he was judged for the sins of the human race. The author of Hebrews writes, “It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God” (Heb. 10:31), and Jesus experienced this terror for us.

Paul writes, “He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him” (2 Cor. 5:21). Peter explains, “And He Himself bore our sins in His body on the cross, that we might die to sin and live to righteousness; for by His wounds you were healed” (1 Pet. 2:24). Isaiah write, “Yet the Lord laid on him the sins of us all” (Isa. 53:6).

Of course, up until this point, Jesus had never known sin (Heb. 4:15; 7:26; 9:14; 1 Pet. 2:22; Jn. 8:46; 2 Cor. 5:21). However, at the Cross, Jesus became sin for the first and last time in history, when God judged him. Here God gave a visual demonstration of this spiritual judgment on Christ by making darkness fall over the Earth from noon until three p.m. (Mt. 27:45). Of course, in the OT, darkness was a symbol for God’s judgment over the people (Amos 8:9-10; Ex. 10:21-22). During those three hours, Jesus took on the wrath of God.

Why Did Jesus Die?

Why did Jesus go through such excruciating torment?

Paul tells us: “He forgave us all our sins, 14 having canceled the written code, with its regulations, that was against us and that stood opposed to us; he took it away, nailing it to the cross” (Col. 2:13-14). The “written code” (NIV) or “certificate of debt” (NASB) was a legal document that was nailed to the top of the cross of a guilty person. This document had the person’s name and their crime. For example, if the person was a murderer, it would say, “John Doe: Murderer.” Once the person died, their debt was paid to the state. For instance, Jesus had a certificate of debt nailed to the top of his Cross. It read, “Jesus the Nazarene: King of the Jews” (Jn. 19:19). In other words, Jesus was being crucified for claiming to be the king of the Jews.

This becomes interesting when we read that Jesus screamed, “It is finished” (Jn. 19:30) from the Cross. This expression (“It is finished”) is the Greek term tetelestai, which literally meant “paid in full.” NT scholar Edwin Blum writes,

Papyri receipts for taxes have been recovered with the word tetelestai written across them, meaning ‘paid in full.’ This word on Jesus’ lips was significant. When He said, ‘It is finished’ (not ‘I am finished’), He meant His redemptive work was completed. He had been made sin for people (2 Cor. 5:21) and had suffered the penalty of God’s justice which sin deserved.[27]

In other words, we all have our certificates of debt nailed to Jesus’ Cross (Col. 2:14), and Jesus claimed that he had paid for this in full “once for all” (Heb. 9:26)

Not too long ago a book was published with the title: What was God doing on the Cross? It appears that there are two questions being asked, not one. First, “What was God doing on the cross?” Why was the God-man impaled on a Roman gibbet? It seems shocking that God should be crucified? Second, “What was God doing on the cross?” Once we’ve agreed that the God-man was on the cross, we wonder, “what was he doing there?” What was he accomplishing through the crucifixion of Jesus? To what end and for what purpose was Jesus, the God-man, suffering?

The problem is that there are growing numbers of Christians who are having an increasingly difficult time answering that question. The reason for this is three-fold: (1) a diminishing sense of God’s holiness; (2) a diminishing sense of mankind’s sinfulness; and (3) an inordinately increasing sense of self-worth. Whereas I affirm the need for a proper self-image, I fear that many are fast becoming so impressed with themselves that they can’t help but wonder why Jesus had to die for them at all! But when we look at the Scripture, we realize that the God-man, Jesus, was on the cross, suffering the eternal penalty we deserved because of the infinity of God’s holiness and the depths of our depravity.

The Pain and Shame of Crucifixion

Any attempt to understand the sufferings of Christ must reckon with the fact that “two thousand years of pious Christian tradition have largely domesticated the cross, making it hard for us to realize how it was viewed in Jesus’ time” (Carson, 573). Both the painful and shameful aspects of crucifixion have become blurred, and no matter what we may think we know about this manner of execution, it simply does not mean the same thing for us as it did to those living in the first century.

The NT itself does not provide much information concerning the details of the crucifixion. There is a remarkable brevity and restraint on the part of all four gospel authors when it comes to the actual crucifixion of Jesus. All that is said in Matt. 27:35a; Mark 15:24a; Luke 23:33; and John 19:18 is that “they crucified him.” Why is there so little recorded for us? There are at least two reasons. In the first place, crucifixion was so frequent and its details were so common knowledge that they must certainly have believed it unnecessary to be more precise. People in the first century were all too painfully familiar with crucifixion. More important is the fact that the crucifixion was so utterly repugnant and so indescribably shameful that they deemed it improper to go beyond the barest minimum in describing our Lord’s experience of it. More on this later.

Historical Crucifixion

We must remember that the theological significance of the cross cannot be separated from the historical and physical event itself. The kinds of crosses used would vary according to their shape: X, T, and t were the most common forms. The height of the cross was also important. Usually the victim’s feet would be no more than one to two feet above the ground. This was so that wild beasts and scavenger dogs common in the city might feed on the corpse. Martin Hengel (Crucifixion, 9) quotes Pseudo-Manetho as saying, “Punished with limbs outstretched, they see the stake as their fate; they are fastened and nailed to it in the most bitter torment, evil food for birds of prey and grim pickings for dogs.” Jesus may well have been made an exception to this rule (cf. Matt. 27:42,48). If so, it wasn’t out of mercy, but in order to increase his humiliation by exposing his shame more readily to passersby.

The Nails

The nails were spikes used to impale the victim to the tree. In 1968 in a cemetery at Gi’vat Ha-Mivtar (near Jerusalem), a bulldozer unearthed the skeletal remains of a man named “John” who had been crucified:

The legs were next to each other, the feet joined nearly parallel, both fixed by the same nail at the heels, the knees doubled, the right one overlapping the left, the trunk contorted, and the upper limbs stretched out, each stabbed by a nail in the forearm (cited in Lane, 565).

Prolonging the Victim’s Agony

The crucified man’s right tibia, the larger of the two bones in the lower leg, had been brutally fractured into large, sharp slivers, perhaps to hasten his suffocation by making it virtually impossible to push himself up the vertical beam, an action required to sustain breathing (although this theory has been challenged by Frederick T. Zugibe in his article “Two Questions About Crucifixion,” in Bible Review, April 1989, 35-43). Although this man was crucified through the forearm, it is possible to do so through the palm, contrary to what some have said. If the nail enters the palm through the thenar furrow (an area between three bones) it breaks no bones and is capable of supporting several hundred pounds.

Often times a small peg or block of wood, called a sedecula, was fixed midway up the vertical beam, providing a seat of sorts. Its purpose was to prevent premature collapse and thus prolong the victim’s agony.

Cause of Death on the Cross

The precise cause of death has been debated for years. D. A. Carson summarizes:

“Whether tied or nailed to the cross, the victim endured countless paroxysms as he pulled with his arms and pushed with his legs to keep his chest cavity open for breathing and then collapsed in exhaustion until the demand for oxygen demanded renewed paroxysms.” The scourging, blood loss, and shock from the pain all caused agony that could last for days, eventually leading to suffocation, cardiac arrest, or blood loss. When there was reason to hasten death, the execution squad would smash the victim’s legs. “Death followed almost immediately, either from shock or from collapse that cut off breathing” (574).

Crucifixion as Capital Punishment

It is hard to imagine a more hideous form of capital punishment. Crucifixion was believed to be an effective deterrent in the ancient world and was thus frequently employed.

Appian reported that following the defeat of Spartacus, the victorious Crassus had 6,000 prisoners crucified on the Via Appia between Capua and Rome (Bella Civilia, I.120). Before their last battle, Spartacus himself had a Roman prisoner put to death on a cross to show his men what would happen if they lost. It is strangely ironic that Julius Caesar was hailed as being merciful to his enemies when he ordered their throats cut prior to their being crucified in order to spare them the indescribable suffering of prolonged agony on the cross

Siege of Jerusalem

Josephus described the fate of the Jews taken captive in 70 a.d., when Jerusalem was destroyed. The soldiers, “out of the rage and hatred they bore the prisoners, nailed those they caught, in different postures, to the crosses, by way of jest, and their number was so great that there was not enough room for the crosses and not enough crosses for the bodies” (cited in Hengel, 25–26). Josephus indicates that the Roman general Titus hoped that this would hasten the surrender of those still in the besieged city.

Obscenity and Humiliation

Worse than the pain of the cross was the shame of the cross. See 1 Cor. 1:18-25. Why does Paul refer to the cross as foolishness and a stumbling-block? It isn’t because the concept or practice of crucifixion was intellectually incoherent (like 2 + 2 = 5) or illogical. Rather, the message of salvation through faith in a crucified Savior was deemed “foolishness” and a “stumbling-block” because the cross was itself the embodiment and emblem of the most hideous of human obscenities. The cross was a symbol of reproach, degradation, humiliation, and disgust. It was aesthetically repugnant. In a word, the cross was obscene.

The cross was far more than an instrument of capital punishment. It was a public symbol of indecency and social indignity. Crucifixion was designed to do more than merely kill a man. Its purpose was to humiliate him as well. The cross was intended not only to break a man’s body, but also to crush and defame his spirit. There were certainly more efficient means of execution: stoning (cf. Stephen in Acts 7), decapitation (cf. James in Acts 12), etc. Crucifixion was used to humiliate as well as to harm.

Publicly Naked

For example, crucifixion was always public. In fact, the most visibly prominent place was selected, usually at a crossroads, in the theatre, or elsewhere on high ground. The reason was to intensify the sense of social and personal humiliation. Victims were usually crucified naked. Jewish sensitivities, however, demanded that the victim wear a loincloth. In the Bible physical nakedness was often a symbol of spiritual shame and ignominy. John Calvin wrote:

“The Evangelists portray the Son of God as stripped of His clothes that we may know the wealth gained for us by this nakedness, for it shall dress us in God’s sight. God willed His Son to be stripped that we should appear freely, with the angels, in the garments of his righteousness and fulness of all good things, whereas formerly, foul disgrace, in torn clothes, kept us away from the approach to the heavens” (194).

The first Adam, originally created in the righteousness of God, by his sin stripped us naked. The last Adam, suffering the shame of nakedness, by his obedience clothes us in the righteousness of God.

The “Foolishness” of a Crucified Savior

The ancient assessment of crucifixion is seen in the way it was dealt with in their literature. Historians once mistakenly assumed that the scarcity of references to crucifixion in cultured literary sources was proof that it was rarely employed. More recently it has been determined that the more refined literary artists omitted reference to crucifixion, not because it was unknown, but because they did not want to disgrace or defile their work by mentioning such a vile and obscene practice. In Greek romances and the theatre, crucifixion of the hero/heroine was routine, but in every instance he/she was delivered from the cross and set free. In other words, heroes could not on any account be allowed to suffer such a shameful death. This was one reason why the notion of a crucified savior was “foolishness” to the Greeks.

Cruellissimum taeterrimumque supplicum, which means “that most cruel and disgusting punishment,” was used to describe the crucifixion. Pliny the Younger (112) called Christianity a “perverse and extravagant superstition” because it preached Christ crucified (Epistulae, 10.96.4–8). Tacitus called it a “pernicious superstition.”

The Cross Forbidden for Romans

The shame associated with crucifixion was so intense that it was expressly forbidden that a Roman citizen be executed in that manner. Cicero wrote:

“Even if we are threatened with death, we may die free men.” But the executioner, the veiling of the head, and the very word “cross” should be far removed not only from the person of a Roman citizen but from his thoughts, his eyes, and his ears. “For it is not only the actual occurrence of these things or their endurance, but their liability, their expectation, nay, their mere mention, that is unworthy of a Roman citizen and a free man” (Defence of Rabirius, 5:16).

A Symbol of Indignity

The symbolic emphasis of the cross in the ancient world is also seen in the practice of hanging on a cross the corpse of a man who had been executed by some other means. What possible reason would there be for doing this, except to subject his name/reputation to the worst possible social indignity

The Contradiction of a “Crucified Messiah”

The obscenity of the cross explains Paul’s early opposition to the church and its gospel. Paul was “ravaging” the church (Acts 8:3; a word that literally refers to a wild beast tearing at its prey, ripping flesh from bone); he was “breathing murderous threats” at the church (Acts 9:1); he “persecuted” the church “to the death” (Acts 22:4); he was “furiously enraged” at the church (Acts 26:11); and “tried to destroy it” (Gal. 1:13). Why?

It wasn’t primarily because the church claimed that Jesus was God incarnate, nor because of any perceived threat to the Mosaic law or the Temple (although that accusation was raised; cf. Acts 6:13). The principal stumbling-block for Paul was that Jesus had been crucified. A crucified messiah was a contradiction in terms. One may have a Messiah, or one may have a crucifixion. But one cannot have a Messiah who is himself crucified! The concept of the Messiah evoked images of power, splendor, and triumph, whereas that of crucifixion spoke of weakness, degradation, and defeat.

Crucifixion as Curse

In Jewish law (see Deut. 21:23) “the corpse of a judicially executed criminal was hung up for public exposure that branded him as cursed by God. The words were also applied in Jesus’ day to anyone crucified; and therefore the Jews’ demand that Jesus be crucified rather than banished was aimed at arousing maximum public revulsion toward him” (Carson, 574). (See Acts 5:30; 10:39; 13:29; 1 Pt. 2:24; and esp. Gal. 3:13 where reference to death on a “tree” is prominent.)

Thus, what Paul (or Saul, actually) was hearing proclaimed by Christians was that he who was to enjoy God’s richest blessing instead endured God’s most reprehensible curse. How could these Jews honor as God and Savior one whom God himself had openly and obviously cursed? Worse than a contradiction in terms, a crucified Messiah was an outrageous blasphemy! Yet, note how the early church highlighted this very fact! See Acts 2:23; 4:9–12; 5:29–31.

The Offense of the Cross

Thus the offense of the cross does not come from the fact that it is theologically incoherent or intellectually illogical or legally impermissible. The offense of the cross came from the fact that the cross, itself a visible symbol and physical embodiment of moral shame and aesthetic repugnance, was the instrument of death for him who claimed to be Messiah and Savior. This explains why Paul was himself so horribly mistreated and scorned when he preached the gospel.

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